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U.S. Wheat Growing regions

Click categories and scroll for more characteristic information.
U.S. Wheat Growing regions
Hard red winterHard red springSoft red winterSoft whiteHard whiteDurum
  • Hard red winter
  • Hard red spring
  • Soft red winter
  • Soft white
  • Hard white
  • Durum

Hard Red Winter

Characteristics

  • Medium hard endosperm
  • Red bran
  • Protein content ranges from 9.5% to 13.5%
  • Medium gluten content and mellow gluten.

Growing Regions

Exported mainly from the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Northwest and California. There are quality differences in each of the three growing regions.

Typical Applications

Very versatile in a wide variety of applications.

Hard Red Spring

Characteristics

  • Hard endosperm
  • Red bran
  • Protein ranges from 12% to 15%
  • Strong gluten with good extensibility
  • High water absorption
  • Excellent “improver wheat” in blends.

Growing Regions

Exported mainly through the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Northwest and the Great Lakes. There are quality differences between the growing regions.

Typical Applications

  • Panned breads
  • Hearth breads, rolls, and buns
  • Hamburger buns
  • Pizza
  • Strong (alkaline) oriental noodles
  • Variety breads
  • Tortillas
  • Improver flour in blends for a large variety of products.

Soft Red Winter

Characteristics

  • Soft endosperm
  • Red bran
  • Protein ranges from 8% - 11%
  • Weak gluten
  • Normally the lowest priced U.S. class

Growing Regions

Some soft red winter is exported from the Great Lakes and from the Atlantic, but most is shipped from the Mississippi River ports.

Typical Applications

  • Pastries, cakes, cookies
  • Crackers, pretzels
  • Blending flours to reduce gluten strength

Soft White

Characteristics

  • Soft endosperm
  • White bran – excellent flour color at higher extraction rates
  • Protein ranges from 8.5% - 11.5%
  • Weak gluten
  • Low moisture, low impurity level give excellent milling results

Growing Regions

Virtually all Soft White Wheat is grown in the Pacific Northwest.

Typical Applications

  • Cakes, biscuits, pastries
  • Snack foods and crackers
  • Wafers and cones
  • Flat breads
  • Blends for Asian style noodles
  • Blends for “mellowing” strong wheats

Hard White

Characteristics

  • Hard white endosperm
  • White bran
  • Protein ranges from 10% - 15%
  • Majority used domestically; only limited quantities available

Growing Regions

Hard White is very limited in available supply, especially higher protein levels. Some export via the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Northwest and California.

Typical Applications

  • Asian noodles
  • Whole wheat white flour
  • Whole wheat pan and flat breads

Durum

Characteristics

  • Characteristics
  • Hardest wheat
  • Rich Amber color
  • Protein is typically >13%
  • High Gluten
  • Planted between mid-April and the end of May, and harvested in August or September
  • Semolina Flour

Growing Regions

North Dakota and Montana

Typical Applications

  • Pasta
  • Couscous
  • Mediterranean breads